Meredith L. McMorrow, Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Florette K. Treurnicht, Jocelyn Moyes, Adam L. Cohen, Marthi Pretorius, Orienka Hellferscee, Nicole Wolter, Anne von Gottberg, Arthemon Nguweneza, Johanna M. McAnerney, Fathima Naby, Omphile Mekgoe,
Marietjie Venter, Shabir A. Madhi, and Cheryl Cohen. The Role of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Influenza- and Respiratory Syncytial Virus–associated Hospitalizations in South African Children, 2011–2016. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 15;68(5):773-780. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy532.
McMorrow and colleagues conducted a six-year prospective surveillance for severe respiratory illness (SRI) in young children under five years old in 3 South African hospitals. Both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza associated hospitalisations were laboratory confirmed. The median age of children admitted with RSV and influenza was 4.4 months vs 13.9 months, with highest annual hospitalisation rate in infants aged 0-2 months vs 6-11 months respectively. This indicates that a maternal immunisation could serve as an effective strategy for reducing RSV associated hospitalisations. HIV exposure increased both RSV and influenza associated hospitalisation in infants aged 0-5 months with relative risk (RR) of 1.4 and 2.2 while HIV infection was in association with them in all age group (0-59 months) with RR of 3.8 and 2.7 respectively. However, the impact of the duration of maternal antiretroviral exposure on RSV or influenza associated hospitalisation was not measured which could strengthen the study finding.
Abstract on Pubmed.